Afrique : histoire, economie, politique

1998-2001
The World Factbook page on Mali
DONNEES SUR LE PAYS

Geography

Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W
Map references: Africa
Area:
total area: 1.24 million sq km
land area: 1.22 million sq km
comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
International disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina Faso and Mali was submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept; Burkina Faso and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger
Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February
Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 25%
forest and woodland: 7%
other: 66%
Irrigated land: 50 sq km (1989 est.)
Environment:
current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Nuclear Test Ban
Geographic note: landlocked 

People

Population: 9,653,261 (July 1996 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,310,294; female 2,308,941)
15-64 years: 49% (male 2,231,244; female 2,488,276)
65 years and over: 3% (male 149,370; female 165,136) (July 1996 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.95% (1996 est.)
Birth rate: 51.38 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)
Death rate: 19.49 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 102.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.84 years
male: 45.12 years
female: 48.6 years (1996 est.)
Total fertility rate: 7.25 children born/woman (1996 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
Ethnic divisions: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%
Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
total population: 31%
male: 39.4%

female: 23.1%  Government

Name of country:
conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan
Data code: ML
Type of government: republic
Capital: Bamako
Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)
Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992
Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992) was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held NA April 1992 (next to be held NA April 1997); Alpha KONARE was elected in runoff race against Montaga TALL
head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahima Boubacar KEITA (since NA March 1994) was appointed by the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the prime minister
Legislative branch: unicameral
National Assembly: elections last held 8 March 1992 (next to be held NA February 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (116 total) Adema 76, CNID 9, US/RAD 8, Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West Africa 6, RDP 4, UDD 4, RDT 3, UFDP 3, PDP 2, UMDD 1
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy (Adema), Ibrahim Baubacar KEITA; National Congress for Democratic Initiative (CNID), Mountaga TALL; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally (US/RDA), Mamadou Madeira KEITA; Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West Africa; Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP), Almamy SYLLA; Union for Democracy and Development (UDD), Moussa Balla COULIBALY; Rally for Democracy and Labor (RDT); Union of Democratic Forces for Progress (UFDP), Dembo DIALLO; Party for Democracy and Progress (PDP), Idrissa TRAORE; Malian Union for Democracy and Development (UMDD); Movement for the Independence, the Renaissance and Integration of Africa (MIRIA), Mohammed Lamine TRAORE
Other political or pressure groups: United Movement and Fronts of Azawad (MFUA); Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Kaye (MPGK)
International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador David RAWSON
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] 22 54 70
FAX: [223] 22 37 12
Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia 

Economy

Economic overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The economy is beginning to turn around after contracting through 1992-93, largely because of enhanced exports and import substitute production in the wake of the 50% devaluation of 12 January 1994. Post-devaluation inflation peaked at 35% in 1994, and the government appears to be keeping on track with its IMF structural adjustment program.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.4 billion (1994 est.)
GDP real growth rate: 2.4% (1994 est.)
GDP per capita: $600 (1994 est.)
GDP composition by sector:
agriculture: 42.4%
industry: 15.4%
services: 42.2%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1995 est.)
Labor force: 2.666 million (1986 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, services 19%, industry and commerce 1% (1981)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Budget:
revenues: $376 million
expenditures: $697 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992 est.)
Industries: minor local consumer goods production and food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity:
capacity: 90,000 kW
production: 310 million kWh
consumption per capita: 33 kWh (1993)
Agriculture: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports: $415 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: cotton, livestock, gold
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe
Imports: $842 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, construction materials, petroleum, textiles
partners: mostly franc zone and Western Europe
External debt: $2.8 billion (1995 est.)
Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January 1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948
Fiscal year: calendar year

Transportation

Railways:
total: 641 km; note - linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes
narrow gauge: 641 km 1.000-m gauge (1995)
Highways:
total: 15,610 km
paved: 1,661 km
unpaved: 13,949 km (1987 est.)
Waterways: 1,815 km navigable
Ports: Koulikoro
Airports:
total: 24
with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 4
with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2
with paved runways under 914 m: 7
with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3

with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 8 (1995 est.)  Communications

Telephones: 11,000 (1982 est.)
Telephone system: domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service
domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0
Radios: 430,000 (1992 est.)
Television broadcast stations: 2 (1987 est.)
Televisions: 11,000 (1992 est.) 

Defense

Branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale)
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49: 1,925,205
males fit for military service: 1,100,599 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $66 million, 2.2% of GDP (1994) 


Afrique : histoire, economie, politique

Contenant et contenus conçus et réalisés par Olivier Bain; tirés de l'oubli, toilettés et remis en ligne par Jean-Marc Liotier